The Volkssturm was formed in September 1944 by a Führer Decree and they were formed into four levies to defend German soil against an Allied invasion. The Volkssturm fought their first action at Memel in the eastern front on 7th October 1944.


Who were the men who fought in the Volkssturm? They were not all old men as most people would think, some of them were very young indeed. Others were of normal military age, but they were in important jobs vital to the war effort, thus had been denied military service. The Volkssturm were split into four levies:


The first Levy were mostly uniformed as such, and could be expected to stay in service for about six to eight weeks and could be sent far outside their own areas. Some units within the first Levy could actually become an official part of a Wehrmacht unit, these Volkssturm men were usually better uniformed and better armed than their counterparts in independant Volkssturm battalions. The Volkssturm had an elite unit called the “Freikorps Sauerland” which fought on the western front.



The second Levy were called up two or three days before their towns or villages were threatened by an invading force, these were the men who were doing vital war work and could not be released until the last moment. They also included men of a lower physical standard or of the older or younger age groups. The second Levy received their weapons a day before the enemy were at the gates, making training almost impossible. The second Levy would have very few uniformed items and not all would be armed in time.



The third Levy were activated hours before an enemy attacked their villages or towns. They would have no military uniforms or equipment, if they were lucky they would have been given weapons. It was men of this levy that would most likely be defending their own living rooms and kitchens from a broken window pane with their wives and grandchildren clutching to their legs.


The forth Levy were the ones considered to be totally unfit for any military service at all. No training or weapons, most of these men would have registered on paper only. If they were called up for sevice their one military act would be to throw away their armband before the enemy entered the building. Having said that, there must have been many unrecorded acts of bravery that we will plainly never know about.



Women volunteers were taken into the Volkssturm towards the end of the war and if not official, at least on a local level. From the end of March 1945 women were allowed to carry arms and one famous Wochenschau film shows a woman firing a Panzerfaust.


No Volkssturm unit was bigger than a battalion and some were only company strength, therefore there was never a rank higher than battalion commander. The battalion commander wore black collar patches with four pips on each. The four company commanders wore three pips on each collar. The platoon commanders wore two pips and the squad leaders wore one pip on each collar.



Most of the first Levy were given military uniforms as such, be they Army or airforce, or a mixture of both. Although some men were lucky to have a greatcoat to wear over their civilian clothes. It was common to see a Luftwaffe breast eagle on a jacket and an Army eagle on a field cap, although their removal was ordered, most Volkssturm left them on the uniform items to stress the fact that they were combat troops under military law, should they surrender to the enemy. However, all uniform jackets and greatcoats had the shoulder straps removed upon issue.


Those members without military uniforms had the option of wearing hard wearing outdoor civilian clothing or if they had them some form of para-military uniform. The uniforms of the SA, RAD, HJ or in fact any NSDAP formation could be worn. It was however difficult to surrender wearing such a uniform as the chances of being accepted as a prisoner was very much reduced. The Soviets would kill anyone wearing a party uniform on the grounds that it was the same colour as the Soviet uniforms. Other unifoms worn were post office and railway, although any could be worn, but rank badges were ordered removed, including those of high party officials.

All of the Volkssturm wore an armband and this is what identified even those in civilian clothing as members of the Volkssturm. The armband was supposed to protect the Volkssturm man when surrendering, although many Volkssturm were shot out of hand, even on the western front. The armband came in three types, black lettering on a white background, black writing on a yellow background and a printed version in all three national colours, black, white and red. All the armbands served the same purpose and contained the same text “DEUTSCHER VOLKSSTURM WEHRMACHT”.


No two unit histories are the same, some surrendered as soon as they could, whilst others fought on until the last man, their deeds going unrecorded. In general terms it can be safely said that if a Volkssturm man could fire his Panzerfaust, tank hit or not, if he could fire twelve rifle rounds in the direction of the enemy then he was doing good. Many had served in the 1914-1918 war and as such, knew how to survive if the gods allowed them a chance.


This Volkssturm Battalion Commander fought to the death…

Published in: on September 6, 2016 at 7:29 pm  Leave a Comment  

Attack Against the National Socialist World-View

This excerpt is translated from the SS original. It examines ideological opponents.

They direct their attack against the National Socialist world-view and its value concepts: race, leadership, following, community, national and social, folk and state.

Source: Attack Against the National Socialist World-View

Published in: on September 6, 2016 at 7:10 pm  Leave a Comment  

5 Sep 1942

Hans-Joachim Marseille shot down two Hurricane fighters and two Spitfire fighters between Ruweisat and El Taqua in Libya.


Hans-Joachim Marseille (13 December 1919 – 30 September 1942; was a Luftwaffe fighter pilot and flying ace during World War II. He is noted for his aerial battles during the North African Campaign and his Bohemian lifestyle. One of the most successful fighter pilots, he was nicknamed the “Star of Africa“. Marseille claimed all but seven of his “official” 158 victories against the British Commonwealth’s Desert Air Force over North Africa, flying the Messerschmitt Bf 109 fighter for his entire combat career. No other pilot claimed as many Western Allied aircraft as Marseille.

Marseille, of French Huguenot ancestry, joined the Luftwaffe in 1938. At the age of 20 he graduated from one of the Luftwaffe’s fighter pilot schools just in time to participate in the Battle of Britain, without notable success. A charming person, he had such a busy night life that sometimes he was too tired to be allowed to fly the next morning. As a result, he was transferred to another unit, which relocated to North Africa in April 1941.


Under the guidance of his new commander, who recognised the latent potential in the young officer, Marseille quickly developed his abilities as a fighter pilot. He reached the zenith of his fighter pilot career on 1 September 1942, when during the course of three combat sorties he claimed 17 enemy fighters shot down, earning him the Ritterkreuz mit Eichenlaub, Schwertern und Brillanten (Knight’s Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords, and Diamonds). Only 29 days later, Marseille was killed in a flying accident, when he was forced to abandon his fighter due to engine failure. After he exited the smoke-filled cockpit, Marseille’s chest struck the vertical stabiliser of his aircraft. The blow either killed him instantly or incapacitated him so that he was unable to open his parachute.



listen to 5 part series on his life at link below







Published in: on September 6, 2016 at 4:38 am  Leave a Comment  

5 Sep 1941 “Le Juif et la France”

The exhibition “Le Juif et la France” (“The Jews and France”) opened in Paris France based on the work of the anti-Semitic French Professor George Montando.The  exhibit was  to portray to the French public who was to blame for all of their economical and social problems.









Guerre 1939-1945. “Le Juif et la France”. Exposition anti-juive au Palais Berlitz. Propagande antisémite. Paris, 1941. Photographie de Roger Berson.


Published in: on September 6, 2016 at 2:13 am  Comments (2)  

5 Sep 1940


  • Matrosenobergefreiter Heinrich Mantyk fell overboard from German submarine U-47 300 miles northwest of Ireland while operating the deck gun. He was lost. Of the 40.000 men that went to sea in Uboots in WW2 only 10,000 returned 3 out of 4 perished. The-Rise-and-Fall-of-the-German-U-Boat-1.jpg
  • German armed merchant cruiser Komet completed its voyage across the Northern Sea Route and entered the Pacific Ocean via the Bering Strait. After a long period of negotiations between Germany and the Soviet Union, the Soviets agreed to provide Germany with access to the Northern Sea Route through which Germany could access both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Initially, the two countries had agreed to send 26 ships, including four armed merchant cruisers, but as the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact fell away,explained by Ribbentrop in previous post, this was soon reduced to just one vessel, the Komet. hk_komet_01.jpg
Published in: on September 6, 2016 at 1:49 am  Leave a Comment  


1936 aerial Daimler-Benz factory photo with the message made up of Mercedes cars.

Published in: on September 6, 2016 at 1:22 am  Leave a Comment