March on the Feldherrnhalle

The March on the Feldherrnhalle or “Munich uprising” (also falsely Hitler uprising, Beer Hall Putsch, today mostly Hitler Putsch or the Hitler-Ludendorff-Putsch) was the of Adolf Hitler-led peaceful march to the Feldherrnhalle in Munich on 9 November 1923, which was, by shots of the system-loyal police, prevented and the 16 martyrs of the movement lost their lives. The march was the answer of German national forces to the Communist putsch in Hamburg two weeks earlier, where the KPD wanted to forcibly seize power in the Weimar Republic in itself under their Rädelsführer (leader of a gang) Ernst Thälmann and where more than 100 people were murdered by Communists.

Marsch_zur_Feldherrnhalle

The March

On 30 October 1923, ten months after the occupation of the Ruhr by the French, Adolf Hitler called for in the Munich Circus Krone to revolt. A suitable opportunity, as Gustav Ritter von Kahr in the presence of Otto von Lossows, Hans von Seißers, and numerous prominents from various nationalist camps for the preparation of its plans in the Bürgerbräukeller on November 8, 1923, about its policy objectives. About 30 minutes after the beginning entered Hitler, accompanied by Hermann Göring and other National-Socialists the room, fired a revolver shot into the ceiling to draw attention to himself, noted the meeting hall was surrounded by the SA, and announced the “national revolution” had broken out. He asked the triumvirate and in the meantime fetched Infantry General and former Quartermaster General Erich Ludendorff in an adjoining room, while Göring made a speech. Meanwhile, Hitler was able to bring Kahr, Lossow and Seißer to his side; Hitler’s goal was an immediate uprising, to which the triumvirate promised him his support. Back in the hall asked the three those present to support Hitler’s uprising. To 2.55 clock at night revoked Gustav von Kahr over broadcasting his commitment. In right and nationalist circles, Gustav von Kahr was since that time as “most hated man in Bavaria”, because he had revoked his publicly given word at the Hitler march on the same night. Otto of Lossow also participated in the suppression of the uprising. Both were therefore traitors to the national cause.

The proclamation reads as follows:

“Proclamation to the German people! The government of the November criminals in Berlin has been declared today deposed. A provisional German National Government has been formed. This consists of General Ludendorff, Adolf Hitler, General von Lossow, Colonel von Seißer.”

Following the example of Mussolini’s successful March on Rome, should be available in Bavaria Reichswehr organizations marching together with paramilitary organizations to Berlin and there to take over power in the German Reich.

On Sunday morning of November 9, 1923, the supporters of the NSDAP marched under the leadership of Hitler and Ludendorff from the Bürgerbräukeller. General Ludendorff, who, like Hitler was in civilian clothes and wore a hat, had taken command. Ludendorff took the procession from the Bürgerbräukeller over the Ludwig Bridge. There they disarmed a 30-strong department of state police and marched to Marienplatz. Subsequently, the column turned into the Weinstraße and then pulled through the Theatinerstraße towards Odeonsplatz. The commander of the Bavarian riot police in the capital, Michael Freiherr von Godin, bolted with his 130 men, who were armed with a cannon and machine guns, the Odeonsplatz from. When the procession came in sight, Ludendorff let the marchers to swing right in the short Perusastraße and then immediately left into the Residenzstraße. In tens of sixteen rows to the procession, singing “Die Wacht am Rhein” and “O Deutschland hoch in Ehren”, heading towards the Feldherrenhalle and broke through the cordon at the Residenzstraße.

At 12:45 clock, shots were fired. The shots of the policemen killed one of the first of the peaceful demonstrators Max Erwin von Scheubner-Richter who tore the hooked on arm with Hitler himself to the ground. Ulrich Graf placed him before Hitler and fell, hit by eleven bullets, upon Hitler and Scheubner-Richter. The marchers threw himself to the ground, while the numerous spectators fled. The whole bloody action lasted less than a minute. A total of sixteen supporters of the NSDAP, four policemen and a passerby were shot. Hermann Göring was shot in the leg and critically wounded by a hit in the loin. Comrades took him on a stretcher across the border to Innsbruck, Tirol. Here, a morphine treatment is against the pain, which should lead to dependence later.

The Martyrs of the March to the Feldherrnhalle

The blood of the shot SA men Bauriedl Andreas, Anton Hechenberger and Lorenz Ritter von Stransky-Griffenfeld soaked a Hakenkreuz flag, which was carried by Heinrich Wilhelm Trambauer and hide the flag to Hitler’s release from prison in 1924. Then he gave them as blood flag of the movement.

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Quote

“A peoples fate of 70 million is on the scale of the eternal judgement, and what is perhaps neglected only hours, centuries are no longer able to make up. In this conviction we held on 8 November 1923, the hour had come. Whether we have acted rightly, in the end is not a prosecutor and not a court of the moment decision, but rather one day in German history.” -Adolf Hitler

The Process

The trial of the participants in the march to the Feldherrnhalle began on February 26, 1924 On April 1, 1924 was issued after 24 spectacular days of negotiations, the judgment of the Bavarian People’s Court Munich I. General Ludendorff was acquitted. The judges found it difficult to condemn Adolf Hitler ever and attested him to have been “passed noblest selfless desire” by during the uprising. He was convicted of high treason to the minimum sentence of five years imprisonment.

After the Electoral Victory

After the electoral victory of the NSDAP, the coffins of the martyrs of the march were transferred to the Feldherrnhalle in the newly created Ehrentempel of the fallen soldiers of the movement at Munich Königsplatz.

With a published in the Reich Legal Gazette (Reichsgesetzblatt) Führer decree on November 9 from 1939 become a national holiday.

Gallery

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March on the Feldherrnhalle (stamp)
 

Events

Honors

Die alten Kämpfer
Die alten Kämpfer
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The SongThe later Gauleiter Adolf Wagner wrote the verses “In München sind viele gefallen” (In Munich, many have fallen), the dead of 11/9/1923, which were set to music by Max Böhm:

Deutsch

In München sind viele gefallen,
In München war’n viele dabei;
Es traf vor der Feldherrenhalle
Deutsche Helden das tödliche Blei.

Sie kämpften für Deutschlands Erwachen
Im Glauben an Hitlers Mission
Marschierten mit Todesverachten
In das Feuer der Reaktion.

In München sind viele gefallen
Für Ehre, für Freiheit und Brot.
Es traf vor der Feldherrenhalle
Sechzehn Helden der Märtyrertod.

Ihr Toten vom neunten November,
Ihr Toten, wir schwören es euch,
Es leben noch vieltausend Kämpfer
Für das Dritte, das Großdeutsche Reich!

English

In Munich, many have fallen,
In Munich there were many;
It happened before the Feldherrenhalle
German heroes the deadly lead.

 They fought for Germany awakening
Believing in Hitler’s mission
Marched with death Despise
In the fire of the reaction.

In Munich, many have fallen
For honor, for freedom and bread.
It happened before the Feldherrenhalle
Sixteen heroes of martyrdom.

Your dead on November ninth,
Your dead, we swear to you,
There are still living many thousands of fighters
For the third, the Greater German Reich!

Movie Contribution

November 9, 1938: Tribute to the fallen comrades at the Ehrentempel:

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Published in: on November 9, 2016 at 10:30 am  Leave a Comment  

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