Germany and the Jewish Question Part 2

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1. Population and the Social Structure of German Jews

It is essential, in the first place, to get an accurate picture of the numerical significance of German Jews in those days, as well as their regional distribution within the Reich and their social structure.

The result of the census in 1925 — the last to be held before National-Socialism took over power — showed that out of a total population of 62.5 millions there were 546,379 professing the Jewish faith. In other words, this was just less than 1 % of the total population.

It must be noted however that this statistic merely embraced those Jews professing Jewish faith and not those who were Jews by blood and race but who for some reason or another had accepted a Christian faith. No method whatsoever existed for compiling statistics in respect of this latter category. All that one could do was to set up a statistic for those who were orthodox Jews. Only in recent times the authorities in Germany have set themselves the task of ascertaining how far Jewish blood has penetrated into the German race. These investigations have not yet been concluded; they involve a vast amount of detail work. Hence all statistics that follow are necessarily still based on the figures for orthodox Jewry.

In spite of this we have at our disposal some very reliable research data by the Jews themselves. We refer in this connexion to the works of Heinrich Silbergleit Die Bevölkerungsverhältnisse der Juden im Deutschen Reich — The Jewish Population Problem in the German Reich — (Berlin 1931). By basing our statistics to a large extent on these research figures, we are placing ourselves beyond criticism as prejudiced anti-Semitics.

We have shown that the total percentage of German confessional Jews in 1925 was just below 1%, to be exact, 0.90 %. But this did not mean that the regional distribution within the Reich was on the same scale. Whereas the purely rural districts of Mecklenburg, Oldenburg, Thuringia or Anhalt possessed only a very sparse Jewish population (0.16 to 0.32 %), the majority of Jews were heavily concentrated in the large urban areas, particularly in Prussia, Hamburg or Hessen (1.05 to 1.72 %). In Prussia, the largest of the German federal states, the census showed that nearly 73 % of the total number of Jews were concentrated in the large cities with a population of more than 100,000 — whereas the corresponding ratio for the non-Jewish population reached barely 30 %.

A comparison with the results of the various census since 1871 shows that the status of Jews in the rural districts of Germany has consistently decreased, whereas all urban districts have shown a constant increase.

This can be ascribed to a veritable and phenomenal domestic migration of German Jews within the last 50 years towards the large urban areas. The main reason for this migration is to be found in the rapidly increasing Jewish emancipation in those days consequent upon a German victory in the Franco-Prussian war.

One of the main objectives of this Jewish migration was Berlin, the capital of the Reich, where the number of Jews had become trebled between 1871 and 1910, (36,000–90,000). In this metropolis, the centre of national, political and cultural activity, Jews bad established their headquarters. Here they were able to develop unhampered their own peculiar racial characteristics.

The 1925 census returns for Berlin showed that there were 172,500 Jews or 4.25 % out of a total population of approximately 4 millions. This percentage is four times greater than the percentage of Jews in the whole German population. Berlin, the capital of Prussia, the largest of the federal states, therefore possessed 42 % of the 400,000 Prussian Jews.

Twenty-five percent of these 172,500 Berlin Jews were aliens. This fact alone illustrates clearly the total lack of Jewish affinity for national ties and national sentiment. Nearly one-quarter or 18.5 % of the 400,000 Jews in Prussia possessed foreign nationality.

To be able to appreciate the true significance of these figures, one must bear in mind that Jewry in the large cities was able to attain such numerical significance despite the fact that it was subject to a number of restrictive factors. These could only be made good by a constant immigration from the East, particularly during and after the Great War. It is this Eastern immigration of low-class, mean and morally unscrupulous Jews which has given the German Jewish problem its particular harsh note.

Another aspect of Jewish life is the comparative infertility of Jewish marriages when compared with the rest of the population; further, the evident and constantly increasing tendency to contract marriage with Christians.

Statistics in regard to cross-marriages in Germany reveal the fact that between 1923 and 1932, two male Jews out of every three married Jewesses, — the third marrying a Christian. The statistics in regard to Jewesses were hardly less. In 1926 there were 64 cross-marriages for every hundred purely Jewish marriages, in other words, there were two cross-marriages for every three Jewish ones. At the same period in Germany as a whole, there were 50 cross-marriages against 100 purely Jewish ones, that is, two Jewish marriages to one cross-marriage.

It is self-evident that the complete one-sided distribution of German Jews and their systematic migration to, and concentration in, the large urban areas was an unsound policy and disastrous not only for the Jews but also for the national life of Germany.

But the structure of professional life also suffered from this morbid one-sidedness. Here statistics show that Jewry was a tree without roots, without any anchorage whatsoever in social life. This abnormal social composition was responsible for the fact that the Jews exclusively preferred the commercial professions and steered clear of all manual work.

These facts can be checked by the results of the trades records established in the various German federal states in 1925. In Prussia, Württemberg and Hessen, these census gave the following results in regard to the percentage of Jews employed in the various groups:

Profession Preussia Würtemberg Hessen
Trade and traffic 58,8% 64,6% 69%
Industry 25,8% 24,6% 22%
Agriculture 1,7% 1,8% 4%

It is often asserted that external pressure, political and social considerations, as well as ghetto and boycott have squeezed the Jews out of handicraft trades and forced them into commercial spheres. Here however we must reply by stating that in rural districts, particularly in the former province of Posen and in Hessen-Nassau, the Jews had every opportunity of working as farmers or craftsmen. There were certainly no restrictions placed on them. But they preferred to deal in cattle, corn or fertilizers and especially in money which brought them rich reward.

Felix A. Theilhaber, the well-known Jewish economist, reporting his observations on the causes of Jewish disintegration in Der Untergang der deutschen Juden — The Decline and Fall of Germany Jewry — (Berlin 1921), confirms the fact that so-called primitive production is not in keeping with Jewish characteristics. He admits, primarily, that racial talents force the Jews into the so-called business professions as they are more easily able to guarantee commercial success and material security. Theilhaber finally arrives at the following conclusion:

“Agriculture has little material attraction for German Jews. … Racial instincts, traditions and economic pre­ conditions compel them to choose other professions. .. Hence it is natural that certain types dominate in German Jewry, for example, clothiers, agents, lawyers and doctors. Jewish characteristics and peculiarities are also evident in other branches (departmental stores, furs, tobacco and even the press). One peculiar Jewish feature is the craving for individualism, the urge to become independent and wealthy.”

Among the intellectual professions named by this Jewish author, that of medicine and law were the two most attractive. They were the professions that offered most material gain. Jewish influence in these professions was therefore most marked and finally assumed a dominating character.

In 1932 there were approximately 50,000 German medical practitioners of which 6,488, — 13% — were Jews. That is to say, a figure ten times greater than that to which they were entitled on the basis of population ratio. It is noteworthy to mention in this connexion that the majority of these Jewish doctors classed themselves as specialists in venereal diseases.

In Berlin, the capital of the Reich, the percentage of Jewish doctors was still greater. The figure was 42 % and 52 % for the panel doctors. In the leading Berlin hospitals 45 % of all the doctors were Jews.

An abnormal and disproportionate state of affairs also existed in the legal professions as compared with the population ratio. In 1933 there were 11,795 lawyers practising in Prussia of which 3,350 or nearly 30 % were Jews; 2,051 or 33 % of the total number of 6,236 public notaries were Jews. In Berlin itself the percentage was much higher, — bordering between 48 % and 56 %.

Further consideration must be given to the fact that the administration of justice was chiefly in the hands of orthodox Jews. The position was similar in regard to the professor­ships at various leading German universities. The table below furnishes the statistics of three of these universities in 1931. Not only the law and medical faculties are quoted but the philosophical as well in order to show the abnormal Jewish penetration:

Faculty Berlin Breslau Frankfurt a. M.
Law Out of 44 lecturers, 15 Jews = 34 % Out of 23 lecturers, 6 Jews = 26 % Jewish lecturers 33 %
Medicine Out of 265 lecturers, 118 = 43 % Out of 101 lecturers, 43 Jews = 43 % Jewish lecturers 28 %
Philosophy Out of 268 lecturers, 85 Jews = 31 % Out of 107 lecturers, 26 Jews = 25 % Jewish lecturers 32 %

Two of the most important phases of public life viz. law and public health were thus in danger of coming under complete Jewish control.

Chapter 2 Tomorrow

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Published in: on April 22, 2017 at 2:45 am  Leave a Comment  

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